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Waghorne's* Introduction

Part I. (Read 10th April, 1893) Introduction.

The compiler of these notes makes no claim to be a botanist but he has for some years past been collecting botanical specimens of Labrador and Newfoundland plants, which have been named for him by competent authorities, chiefly, as to flowering and higher cryptogamic plants and mosses, by Professor Macoun, of Ottawa. He has also consulted the publications of others who have written on the subject, and has collected information from all sources open to him.

The authorities used and referred to by him in the compilation of these notes are chiefly the following :-

1. Mr. Reeks' " Notes on the Flora of Newfoundland," a paper read before the Linnaean Society in 1869.

2. Dr. Bell's " Plants of the West Coast of Newfoundland," in the Canadian Naturalist of September, 1869, and March, 1890.

3. Mr. Cormack's "Journey across Newfoundland," in 1822.

4. Professor Macoun's valuable Catalogue of Canadian Plants, which includes those of Labrador and Newfoundland.

5. The Rev. S. R. Butler's list of Labrador plants, which, with some others collected by Miss Macfarlane, also named by Professor Eaton, of New Haven, appeared in the Canadian Naturalist of September, 1870, p. 350.

6. The Flora Miquelonensis of Messrs. E. Delamere, F. Renauld and F. Cardot furnishes me with the plants of St. Pierre and the adjacent French Islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland.

The following publications bearing on the subject I have not, so far, been able to consult. The list is kindly given me by Dr. Britton :- Newfoundland.

FLORE DE TERRE-NEUVE ET DES ILES SAINT PIERRE ET MIQUELON. B. de la Pylaie. 4to, pp. 128 (fasc. 1, 2). Paris, 1829.

THE PLANTS OF THE WEST COAST OF NEWFOUNDLAND. By John Bell. Can. Nat. (II), v. 54-61. 1870.

LIST OF PLANTS COLLECTED IN NEWFOUNDLAND IN 1889, BY DR. ROBERT BELL. By John Macoun. Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Canada, i, 21 DD-25 DD. 1885. A LIST OF THE FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS OF NEWFOUNDLAND, with meteorological observations. By Henry Reeks. Pamph., 8vo. pp. 30. (List of Plants, pp. 2-7.) Newbury,1873.


DE PLANTIS LABRADORACIS. Auct. E. Meyer. Sm. 8vo. pp 218. Lipsiae, 1830.



NOTES ON THE NATURAL HISTORY. OF LABRADOR. By W. A. Stearns. Proc. U. S. .Nat. Museum, vi, 126-137. 1883.

LIST OF PLANTS COLLECTED BY DR. ROBERT BELL IN 1884 ON THE COASTS OF LABRADOR AND HUDSON STRAIT AND BAY. By John Macoun. Rept. Geol. Surv. Canada, 1882, 1883, 1884, 38 DD-47 DD. 1885.

The arrangement and nomenclature are almost without exception those of Professor Macoun's, the only exception, perhaps, being in the case of plants named by specialists since his volume came out.

My Labrador limits are those which mark the jurisdiction of Newfoundland, the northern extremity being Cape Chudleigh, and the southern, Blanc Sablon, in the western part of the Straits of Belle Isle. But no doubt several plants, found south of my range, have been included in those cases where no definite locality has been adduced.

It will be seen that in my notes the Newfoundland plants come first, then those from Labrador, lastly, the plants of the Flora Miquelonensis.

As I am unable to supply adequate and reliable notes as to dates of flowering and habitat, I have judged it wise to append notes on these subjects from the various authorities quoted.

As to localities and the distribution of the plants of this flora, it may be stated that, at least as far as definite places mentioned are concerned, with the exception of the plants I collected in September, 1891, in White Bay and adjacent places on the north-east coast, very nearly all the plants are from Southern Newfoundland. My own parish of New Harbor, in Trinity Bay ,(where most of my Newfoundland plants were found), is on the south-east coast. Then the St. John's neighborhood---as was to be expected---has received some attention as to its flora. Travelling west on the southern coast we come to Placentia Bay, where I have collected a little. About midway on this coast lies Fortune Bay, where I was located for nearly a year in 1888. Just off Fortune Bay are the French possessions of St. Pierre et Miquelon. As far as my information goes, the western part of the southern coast has not been explored. Turning the S. W. extremity of Newfoundland, Cape Ray; we come upon the field of the researches of Messrs. Bell and Reeks, for the last-named gentleman, I believe, chiefly explored about Cod Roy. So that the districts which have been the most closely examined are the middle of the southern coast, and the southern extremities of the western and eastern coasts.

As to the Labrador plants, the field of our own collections was all but entirely that of Southern Labrador, i. e., about Battle Harbour and as far north as Holton, the more northern parts. examined being mostly in and about Sandwich and Gronwater Bays. The plants of the Rev. S. R. Butler come from a still more, southern point, in fact, just within our southern limit. On the other hand, I believe, most of Dr. Bell's Labrador plants are from the extreme northern limit, Cape Chudleigh.

Some common local names are placed in brackets after the usual English or American names.

My own collections are marked by the letters " A. C. W.." and, unless it is otherwise stated, my specimens have been named by Professor Macoun. I have in all other cases, as far as possible, added after collector's name that of the authority who named the plant, that is, as far as the plants that have gone through my hands. are concerned.

Part II.(Read 13th May, 1895.) Introduction.

Circumstances have unhappily delayed the compilation of these notes. The first paper was read before the Institute on April l0th, l893, and was published in its Transactions of the 2nd series, Vol. I., beginning at page 359. That dealt with Polypetalae, as far as Leguminosae, inclusive. This second paper completes the Polypetalae and includes a supplementary list of plants belonging to the earlier portion of this division, which have been found by the compiler and others since it was published, or of whose claim to be included therein he has since been assured. The plants in this supplementary list are additions either to the Newfoundland or Labrador flora.

This fuller knowledge of our flora, which yields these supplementary plants, and which renders the whole list more complete and accurate, is derived from various sources, which are chiefly these :-

1. The writer's own discoveries for 1893 and 1894. These mostly concern the Labrador, as the greater part of both these summers were spent on that coast, that of 1893 extending from the Strait of Belle Isle (the southern ward point being Bradore), northwards through the Battle Harbour district, as far as Sandwich Bay. Last Summer his journeyings were confined to the Strait of Belle Isle. The Newfoundland plants were almost exclusively collected in Notre Dame Bay, on the North-east coast, chiefly about Exploits.

2. Dr. Packard's " The Labrador Coast " contains a list of Labrador plants extending over 22 pages, compiled for the author by Professor Macoun. This list affords a few additions to those plants included in Professor Macoun's "Catalogue of Canadian Plants," mostly the collections of the Moravian missionaries in Northern Labrador.

3. Dr. Robinson, Professor of Harvard University, with Mr. Schrenk, spent a month or so in Newfoundland last summer and their researches have added considerably to our knowledge of the flora of this country. Dr. Robinson has generously presented to us a collection of these plants, and this collection affords, of course, valuable aid in the compilation of this list.

4. The Revd. R. Temple, Rural Dean of Notre Dame Bay, kindly handed over to the compiler a few plants collected by him some years ago, which have added a few names to our list. But for the most part Mr. Temple's plants give no data as to whether they were collected at Ferryland, on the South, or at White Bay, on the North-eastern coast.

Dr. D. C. Eaton, of Yale, and Professor J. Fowler, of Queen's University, Kingston, have kindly named most of the collections of 1894, as far as they are included in this paper.

The writer's introduction to the previous paper probably conveys whatever else need be stated by way of preface.

Part III. (Read May 9th, 1898) Introduction.

A change of residence, and the charge of a new and extensive parish, are the hindrances, which are chiefly accountable for the delay in the continuance of this series of papers, of which the first part appeared in the Transactions of the Institute, Vol. VIII (Ser. 2, Vol. I.), page 359; and the second part in Vol. IX (Ser. 2, Vol. II.), page 17.

To the prefatory remarks of the two preceding papers, a few notes that should be added :---

1. The Part I. here first presented is made up of Polypetalous plants which have been added to our Newfoundland or Labrador lists of plants since 1895.

2. These have been obtained from three sources, chiefly:---

(a) Professor Macoun’s Contributions from the Herbarium of the Geological Survey of Canada, (Parts I.-VI.); these are indicated herein briefly as “C.H. Geo. S. of C.”

(b) A list of Newfoundland plants collected by Mr. A.B. Bullman, B. A. Sc. (of H.M. Newfoundland Survey). The plants were collected by him on the West coast in 1896, and in White Bay in 1897. This gentleman modestly says that he lays no claim to be a botanist, so that his determinations may be subject to revision, a fate which befalls even those of men who are botanists. If Mr. Bullman’s decisions are sustained as to certain plants, his list adds fifteen names to our flora.

(c) My own collections since 1895 in the Bay of Islands, and a week while in Bay St. George, and a trip across the country in 1895, and to Brenton and Clode Sound in Bonavista Bay, on the East coast. At Mr. Reid’s stone quarry, about 80 miles from the Bay of Islands, on both sides of the railway track, by the sides of the ponds in the bogs, I was fortunate enough to find, for the first time, the Schizaea pusilla, Pursh, in fair quantity.

3. To the gentlemen who have kindly assisted me in the determination of my plants, I may now add the names of Dr. Wm. Trelease of St. Louis, Dr. B.L. Robinson of Harvard, and Mr. T.V. Coville of Washington.

4. If permitted so to do, I would gladly say that I have been for the last three or four years distributing my plants, including mosses and lichens, (the fungi I hope to have ready this coming season), and that I should be glad to hear of any who may desire specimens.


*Arthur C. Waghorne. The Flora of Newfoundland, Labrador and St. Pierre et Miquelon.
Proceedings and transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, 1895, p. 359-362, 1898, p. 83-84, 1898, p. 361-362